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Harley-Davidson Super Glide
The Harley-Davidson Super Glide is a motorcycle model made by the Harley-Davidson Motor Company. Reputed to be the first factory custom motorcycle, it originated Harley's FX series of motorcycles by mating Sportster components, most notably the front end, with the chassis of their larger big twin motorcycles. The current Super Glide model is now based on the Dyna Glide chassis which offers a wider variety of front ends and trim levels, and continues to fill the intermediate niche between the smallest and largest Harley models.
From 1934 to 1970, with the exception of the Servi-Car, there have been two distinct lines of V-Twin Harley-Davidson motorcycles, the small twins and the big twins. However, individual bikers would sometimes customize bikes by changing parts around or cutting and rewelding frames and other components to suit their tastes.
Harley-Davidson styling director Willie G. Davidson was aware of this phenomenon and decided to design a motorcycle for production that would offer the look of the custom bikes. To accomplish this, he started with the frame and rear suspension, but not the electric starter, from the FLH Electra Glide, to which he then mated the smaller telescopic forks from the XLH Sportster. This combination was referred to as the FX chassis, where "FX" meant "Factory Experimental", The drivetrain and engine accessories were from the FLH, the front headlights and brakes were from the XLH. This use of a mixture of FL and XL parts has also been used to explain the FX designation. To complete the Super Glide, he added buckhorn handlebars and a "boattail" tail/fender unit similar to those being used on the XLH Sportster.
The production FX Super Glide was released in 1971 to a lukewarm reception. Particularly not well received was the "boattail", which also proved to be unpopular on the Sportsters that had it. Sales of both models improved when less radical rear styling was made available.
Variations of the FX Super Glide
In 1974, the FX was joined by the FXE, a version of the Super Glide with an electric starter. Both versions also got an exclusive one-piece tank instead of the Fat Bob tank used by the FL.
In 1977, the FXS Low Rider was introduced. The Low Rider had alloy wheels front and rear, two disc brakes on the front wheel, extended forks with a 32° rake, and a 26" seat height. Unlike the Super Glide, the Low Rider was an instant hit; outselling all other Harley-Davidson models in its first full year of production. All three FX models returned to using Fat Bob tanks, but with a special centre divider that included a tachometer.
A 1977 Harley-Davidson Confederate Edition of the Super Glide that featured commemorative paint and tank and fender decals was produced but in such low volume numbers - only 228 units - as to make it one of the rarest of the company's motorcycles.
The base, kickstart-only FX was discontinued in 1979. In that year, the FXEF Fat Bob was introduced. The following year would bring the FXB Sturgis, an all-black Low Rider with primary and secondary belt drives, and the FXWG Wide Glide, a Low Rider with wide forks and a flame pattern painted on the tank.
In 1983, the Low Rider was converted from chain drive to belt drive and given the designation FXSB, at which point the FXB was discontinued. In the same year, the FXDG Disc Glide was introduced. This model had a disc-type rear wheel instead of the wire-spoked wheel of the Super Glide or the solid-spoked wheel of the Low Rider.
The FXE Super Glide was discontinued in 1985, with the FXEF Fat Bob becoming the base model.
In 1986, all FX-based bikes except the Wide Glide were supplanted by FXR-based bikes. The Wide Glide was discontinued the following year.
The FXR Super Glide II was introduced in 1982 and sold alongside the existing FX models. The FXR chassis was essentially an FLT Tour Glide chassis with lighter frame tubes and a more conventional design around the steering head. As such, it offered a rubber-mounted engine and a five-speed transmission, as opposed to the solid mounting and four-speed transmission of the original FX chassis.
The FXR range was expanded in 1983 by the introduction of the FXRT Sport Glide, a Super Glide variant with a fairing and saddlebags, and the FXRS Low Glide, which was the FXR equivalent of the FXSB Low Rider. Upon the discontinuation of the corresponding FX-based models, the FXR Super Glide II became the FXR Super Glide and the FXRS Low Glide became the FXRS Low Rider. The Wide Glide was discontinued because the FXR frame was not suitable for the wide forks.
The 1984 Disc Glide as it was known was a very rare motorcycle it had the first offering of the "Chrome Package" meaning it came with chrome rocker boxes, nose cone, and primary cover. It was called the FXRSDG.
Design work began on the replacement for the FXR chassis shortly after the first FXR bikes were offered. The Dyna chassis was introduced in 1991 with a limited- production FXDB Sturgis model. The engine mounting system was changed from three rubber mounts to two, resulting in poorer vibration control, but speedier production on the assembly line.
The Sturgis was followed in 1992 by the limited-edition FXDB Daytona. Also introduced in 1992 was the FXDC Dyna Glide Custom. Apart from the paint scheme, the Dyna Glide Custom was virtually identical to the Daytona. Dyna Customs were all painted black and silver, and the early models featured a silver powder coat on the frame. Later production units featured a black frame.
In 1993 the faired and bagged FXRT Sport Glide was discontinued and the FXRS Low Rider was displaced by the FXDL Dyna Low Rider, although the FXR, FXLR, FXRS-Conv Convertible and the FXRS-SP Low Rider Sport continued to be offered. The FXDWG Dyna Wide Glide was introduced in the same year. The Low Rider Sport was discontinued in 1994, and the Low Rider was discontinued after the 2009 model year.
Between the 1991 introduction of the Dyna chassis and the end of the 1994 model year, all Dyna models had a 32° rake. In 1995 the FXD Dyna Super Glide and the FXDS- Conv Dyna Glide Convertible were introduced. These Dynas had a 28° rake and replaced the FXR Super Glide and the FXLR Low Rider Custom, which were the last FXR models in regular production.
The FXDX Super Glide Sport was introduced in 1999, featuring improved suspension components and triple disc brakes. The FXDX-T Super Glide T-Sport, with a fork mounted fairing and improved detachable saddlebags, replaced the FXDS-Conv Dyna Convertible in 2001, and was discontinued in 2003.
The FXDC returned to the line in 2005 as the Super Glide Custom.
A second-hand or used good is one that is being purchased by or otherwise transferred to a second or later end user. A used good can also simply mean it is no longer in the same condition as it was when it was first transferred to the current end user. Used goods may be transferred informally between friends and family for free as "hand-me-downs" or they may be sold for a fraction of their original price at garage sales or in church bazaar fundraisers. Governments require some used goods to be sold through regulated markets, as in the case of items which have safety and legal issues, such as used firearms or cars; for these items, government licensing bodies require certification and registration of the sale, to prevent the sale of stolen, unregistered, or unsafe goods. As well, for some high-value used goods, such as cars and motorcycles, governments regulate used sales to ensure that the government gets its sales tax revenue from the sale.
Second-hand goods can benefit the purchaser as the price paid is lower than the same items bought new. If the reduction in price more than compensates for the possibly shorter remaining lifetime, lack of warranty, and so on, there is a net benefit.
Selling unwanted goods second-hand instead of discarding them obviously benefits the seller.
Recycling goods through the second-hand market both reduces use of resources in manufacturing new goods, and diminishes waste which must be disposed of, both significant environmental benefits. However, manufacturers who profit from sales of new goods lose corresponding sales. Scientific research shows that buying used goods reduces carbon footprint and CO2 emissions significantly compared to the complete product life cycle, because of less production, raw material sourcing and logistics. Often the relative carbon footprint of production, raw material sourcing and the supply chain is unknown. A scientific methodology has been made to analyze how much CO2 emissions are reduced when buying used goods like second hand hardware versus new hardware.
Second-hand goods may have faults which are not apparent even if examined; purchasing sight unseen, for example, from an Internet auction site, has further unknowns. Goods may cause problems beyond their value; for example, furniture may have not easily seen bedbugs, which may cause an infestation which is difficult and expensive to eradicate. Faulty electrical and mechanical goods can be hazardous and dangerous.
Goods sold second-hand may have been stolen. In this case, in most jurisdictions the goods do not become the legal property of the purchaser; and knowing purchase of stolen goods is a criminal offence.
Types of transfers
Many items that are considered obsolete and worthless in developed countries, such as decade-old hand tools and clothes, are useful and valuable in impoverished communities in the country or in developing countries. Underdeveloped countries like Zambia are extremely welcoming to donated second-hand clothing. At a time when the country’s economy was in severe decline the used goods provided jobs by keeping “many others busy with repairs and alterations”. It has created a type of spin-off economy at a time when many Zambians were out of work. The used garments and materials that were donated to the country also allowed for the production of “a wide range of fabrics” whose imports had been previously restricted. The trade is essentially executed by women who operate their small business based on local associations and networks. Not only does this provide self-employment, but it also increases household income and enhances the economy. But while many countries would be welcoming of second-hand goods, it is also true that there are countries in need who refuse donated items. Countries like Poland, Philippines and Pakistan have been known to reject second hand items for “fear of venereal disease and risk to personal hygiene”. Similar to these countries, India also refuses the import of second-hand clothing but will accept the import of wool fibers, including mutilated hosiery which is a term meaning "woollen garments shredded by machine in the West prior to export". Through the production of shoddy, most of which is produced in Northern India today, unused clothing can be recycled into fibres that are spun into yarn for reuse in 'new' used goods. The acceptance of second hand goods goes beyond the need of the people and into the hands of government officials. United States taxpayers can deduct donations of used goods to charitable organizations. Both Goodwill Industries and the Salvation Army web sites have lists of items with their estimated range of values. Another way that people transfer used goods is by giving them to friends or relatives. When a person gives an item of some value that they have used to someone else, such as a used car or a winter coat, it is sometimes referred to as a "hand-me-down".
Used items can often be found for sale in thrift stores and pawnshops, auctions, garage sales, and in more recent times online auctions. Some stores sell both new and used goods (e.g. car dealerships), while others only sell new goods but may take used items in exchange for credit toward the purchase of newer goods. For example, some musical instrument stores and high-end audio stores only sell new gear, but they will accept good quality used items as trade ins towards the purchase of new items; after the store purchases the used items, they then sell them using online auctions or other services.
When an item is no longer of use to a person they may sell or pawn it, especially when they are in need of money. Items can also be sold (or taken away free of cost) as scrap (e.g. a broken-down old car will be towed away for free for its scrap metal value). Owners may sell the good themselves or to a dealer who then sells it on for a profit. However, because the process takes some effort on part of the owner they may simply keep possession of it or dump it at a landfill instead of going to the trouble of selling it. It has been common to buy second-hand or used good on markets or bazaars for long time. When the web became popular, it became common with web sites such as eBay and Yahoo! Classifieds.
The strategy of buying used items is employed by some to save money, as they are typically worth less than the equivalent new items. Purchasing used items for reuse prevents them from becoming waste and saves costly production of equivalent new goods. Motivations for purchase include conserving natural resources and protecting the environment, and may form part of a simple living plan.
Despite this, many people prefer to buy most or all of their goods new. They may feel safer buying new because a warranty is provided or because they are concerned they may be buying stolen goods. Goods purchased secondhand may also be exempt from certain legal requirements (e.g. consumer protection laws). Other consumers may be willing to buy used, but simply do not know where to buy them or lack the expertise needed to make a good purchase (e.g. a used car). Haggling may be involved in purchase of used goods, especially in less formal situations like a yard sale or in pawnshops, where negotiation is often done. Some consumers are uncomfortable or inexperienced in this situation too, and may choose to buy new goods instead. However some simply prefer their goods brand new and/or feel secondhand items are inferior or shabby (the 'yuck factor'), especially in the case of clothing or items used for eating such as plates or cutlery. Although this view is predominant in Western and developed nations, it is not universally held. Populations of many second- and third-world nations often prefer second-hand items for their relative availability and lower cost, as much of the used clothing from the US and European nations are exported to developing nations for resale.
A motorcycle (also called a motorbike, bike, moto or cycle) is a two or three wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task they are designed for, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions.
Motorcycles are one of the most affordable forms of motorised transport in many parts of the world and, for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles (including mopeds, motor scooters, motorised bicycles, and other powered two and three-wheelers) in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles per 1000 people. This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people.
Most of the motorcycles, 58%, are in the developing countries of Asia – Southern and Eastern Asia, and the Asia Pacific countries, excluding Japan – while 33% of the cars (195 million) are concentrated in the United States and Japan. In 2006, China had 54 million motorcycles in use and an annual production of 22 million units. As of 2002, India, with an estimated 37 million motorcycles/mopeds, was home to the largest number of motorised two wheelers in the world. China came a close second with 34 million motorcycles/mopeds.
19th century: the first motorcycles
Experimentation and invention
The first internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Petroleum Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885. This vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, and thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier. Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). It was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. Many authorities who exclude steam powered, electric or diesel two-wheelers from the definition of a motorcycle, credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle.
If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first was the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede of 1868. This was followed by the American Roper steam velocipede of 1869, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Roper demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867, and built a total of 10 examples.
Beginnings of mass production
Until World War I, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian, producing over 20,000 bikes per year. By 1920, this honour went to Harley-Davidson, with their motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries. By the late 1920s or early 1930s, DKW took over as the largest manufacturer.
After World War II, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world, producing up to 75,000 bikes per year in the 1950s. The German company NSU held the position of largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s.
In the 1950s, streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle design. NSU and Moto Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development, both producing very radical designs well ahead of their time. NSU produced the most advanced design, but after the deaths of four NSU riders in the 1954–1956 seasons, they abandoned further development and quit Grand Prix motorcycle racing.
Moto Guzzi produced competitive race machines, and by 1957 nearly all the Grand Prix races were being won by streamlined machines. The following year, 1958, full enclosure fairings were banned from racing by the FIM in the light of the safety concerns.
From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of East German Walter Kaaden's engine work in the 1950s.
In the 21st century, the motorcycle industry is mainly dominated by Japanese companies. In addition to the large capacity motorcycles, there is a large market in smaller capacity (less than 300 cc) motorcycles, mostly concentrated in Asian and African countries. An example is the 1958 Honda Super Cub, which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time, with its 60 millionth unit produced in April 2008. Today, this area is dominated by mostly Indian companies with Hero MotoCorp emerging as the world's largest manufacturer of two wheelers. Its Splendor model has sold more than 8.5 million to date. Other major producers are Bajaj and TVS Motors.
In numerous cultures, motorcycles are the primary means of motorised transport. According to the Taiwanese government, for example, "the number of automobiles per ten thousand population is around 2,500, and the number of motorcycles is about 5,000." In places such as Vietnam, motorised traffic consist of mostly motorbikes due to a lack of public transport and low income levels that put automobiles out of reach for many.
The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil's frontier towns. Amid the global economic downturn of 2008, the motorcycle market grew by 6.5%.
The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil's frontier towns. Amid the global economic downturn of 2008, the motorcycle market grew by 6.5%.
Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of motorcycles elsewhere. In the USA, registrations increased by 51% between 2000 and 2005. This is mainly attributed to increasing fuel prices and urban congestion. A Consumer Reports subscribers' survey of mainly United States motorcycle and scooter owners reported that they rode an average of only 1,000 miles (1,600 km) per year, 82% for recreation and 38% for commuting. Americans put 10,000–12,000 miles (16,000–19,000 km) per year on their cars and light trucks.
As motorcyclists age, there is a tendency for riders to choose touring bikes over sports bikes.
While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are increasingly practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or reducing the effects of urban congestion. In places where it is permitted, lane splitting, also known as filtering, allows motorcycles to use the space between vehicles to move through stationary or slow traffic.
In the UK, motorcycles are exempt from the £10 per day London congestion charge other vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. Motorcycles are also exempt from toll charges at some river crossings, such as the Severn Bridge, Dartford Crossing, and Mersey Tunnels. Some cities, such as Bristol, allow motorcycles to use bus lanes and provide dedicated free parking. In the United States, those states that have high-occupancy vehicle lanes also allow for motorcycle travel in them. Other countries have similar policies.
In New Zealand motorcycle riders are not required to pay for parking that is controlled by a barrier arm; the arm does not occupy the entire width of the lane, and the motorcyclist simply rides around it. Many car parks controlled in this way supply special areas for motorcycles to park, so as not to unnecessarily consume spaces.
In many cities that have serious parking challenges for cars, such as San Francisco, California, and Melbourne, Australia, motorcycles are generally permitted to park on the sidewalk, rather than occupy a space on the street which might otherwise be used by a car.
Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, one with a longer wheelbase provides the feeling of more stability by responding less to disturbances. Motorcycle tyres have a large influence over handling.
Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method known as countersteering, in which the rider momentarily steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of the desired turn. Because it is counter-intuitive this practice is often very confusing to novices – and even to many experienced motorcyclists.
Short wheelbase motorcycles, such as sport bikes, can generate enough torque at the rear wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the road. These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stoppies respectively. If carried past the point of recovery the resulting upset is known as an "endo" (short for "end-over-end"), or "looping" the vehicle.
Selling is offering to exchange an item of value for a different item. The original item of value being offered may be either tangible or intangible. The second item, usually money, is most often seen by the seller as being of equal or greater value than that being offered for sale.
A person or organization expressing an interest in acquiring the offered item of value is referred to as a potential buyer, prospective customer or prospect. Buying and selling are understood to be two sides of the same "coin" or transaction. Both seller and buyer engage in a process of negotiation to consummate the exchange of values. The exchange, or selling, process has implied rules and identifiable stages. It is implied that the selling process will proceed fairly and ethically so that the parties end up nearly equally rewarded. The stages of selling, and buying, involve getting acquainted, assessing each party’s need for the other’s item of value, and determining if the values to be exchanged are equivalent or nearly so, or, in buyer's terms, "worth the price.”
From a management viewpoint it is thought of as a part of marketing, although the skills required are different. Sales often forms a separate grouping in a corporate structure, employing separate specialist operatives known as salespersons (singular: salesperson). Selling is considered by many to be a sort of persuading "art". Contrary to popular belief, the methodological approach of selling refers to a systematic process of repetitive and measurable milestones, by which a salesman relates his or her offering of a product or service in return enabling the buyer to achieve their goal in an economic way. While the sales process refers to a systematic process of repetitive and measurable milestones, the definition of the selling is somewhat ambiguous due to the close nature of advertising, promotion, public relations, and direct marketing.
Brasil & Movimento
Hero MotoCorp (formerly Hero Honda)
Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India
Mahindra & Mahindra Limited
Royal Enfield Motors
Suzuki Motorcycle India
India Yamaha Motor
Ghezzi & Brian
Husqvarna (owned by BMW but all production remains in Italy)